This tutorial describes details on pagination with Cursor objects.
We use pagination a lot in Twitter API development. Iterating through timelines, user lists, direct messages, etc. In order to perform pagination, we must supply a page/cursor parameter with each of our requests. The problem here is this requires a lot of boiler plate code just to manage the pagination loop. To help make pagination easier and require less code, Tweepy has the Cursor object.
Old way vs Cursor way¶
First let’s demonstrate iterating the statuses in the authenticated user’s timeline. Here is how we would do it the “old way” before the Cursor object was introduced:
page = 1 while True: statuses = api.user_timeline(page=page) if statuses: for status in statuses: # process status here process_status(status) else: # All done break page += 1 # next page
As you can see, we must manage the “page” parameter manually in our pagination loop. Now here is the version of the code using the Cursor object:
for status in tweepy.Cursor(api.user_timeline).items(): # process status here process_status(status)
Now that looks much better! Cursor handles all the pagination work for us behind the scenes, so our code can now focus entirely on processing the results.
Passing parameters into the API method¶
What if you need to pass in parameters to the API method?
Since we pass Cursor the callable, we can not pass the parameters directly into the method. Instead we pass the parameters into the Cursor constructor method:
Now Cursor will pass the parameter into the method for us whenever it makes a request.
Items or Pages¶
So far we have just demonstrated pagination iterating per item. What if instead you want to process per page of results? You would use the pages() method:
for page in tweepy.Cursor(api.user_timeline).pages(): # page is a list of statuses process_page(page)
What if you only want n items or pages returned? You pass into the items() or pages() methods the limit you want to impose.
# Only iterate through the first 200 statuses for status in tweepy.Cursor(api.user_timeline).items(200): process_status(status) # Only iterate through the first 3 pages for page in tweepy.Cursor(api.user_timeline).pages(3): process_page(page)
Include Tweets > 140 Characters¶
Since twitter increased the maximum number of characters allowed in a tweet from 140 to 280, you may notice that tweets greater than 140 characters are truncated with …
If you want your results to include the full text of the long tweets, make these simple changes:
- add the argument
tweet_mode='extended'to your Cursor object call
- change your usage of
# example code tweets = tweepy.Cursor(api.search, tweet_mode='extended') for tweet in tweets: content = tweet.full_text